Abies magnifica A. Murr.

Red Fir

Modern name

Abies magnifica A.Murray bis

A tree to 180 ft in nature, occasionally over 200 ft, with a narrowly conical crown and reddish bark; young shoots furnished with a minute down; buds resinous at the top, more or less concealed by leaves. Leaves 1 to 134 in. long, 112 in. wide; glaucous green, with stomata on all surfaces; blunt, but not notched at the apex, nor grooved along the upper surface. On old cone-bearing branches they are pointed, stiffer, shorter, and diamond-shaped in cross-section. The leaves are crowded on the top as much as on the sides of the shoot; those on the top have their bases flattened to, and nearly hiding the stem, then curve upwards. Cones 6 to 8 in. long, about half as wide, purple when young, afterwards brown; bracts enclosed (except in the variety mentioned below). Bot. Mag., t. 8552.

Native of Oregon and California; introduced by Jeffrey in 1851. It is a strikingly elegant tree of slender conical shape and should be planted more widely. It is seen at its best in the cooler and rainier parts of the British Isles but some good specimens in the south of England (see below) suggest that it could be grown in a drier climate provided it is given a sheltered position and moist soil. However, it grows poorly in the Thames Valley and will not tolerate a polluted atmosphere. A. F. Mitchell has observed that it gains rapidly in girth in early years but appears to be rather short-lived (in nature the rate of growth is slower but the life-span 250 years or more). From A. procera, to which it is allied, it may be distinguished by its longer, never-grooved needles.

With but one exception the tallest extant specimens are all in Scotland: Blair Atholl, Perths., 116 × 1014 ft (1955); Dunkeld, Perths., two on the Cathedral Lawn, 115 × 912 and 115 × 814 (1961), and another by Dunkeld House, 110 × 914 ft (1962); Glamis Castle, Angus. pl. 1864, 112 × 1012 ft (1955); Taymouth Castle, Perths., 110 × 934 and 101 × 1014 ft (1961); Cragside, Northumb., 105 × 812 ft (1958). In the south, the best recorded are: Borde Hill, Sussex, 80 × 7 ft (1961), an earlier measurement being 24 × 3 ft (1931); Hergest Croft, Heref., pl. 1917, 64 × 714 ft (1963); National Pinetum, Bedgebury, Kent, pl. 1925, 64 × 8 ft (1965).

var. shastensis Lemm. – Cones shorter and thicker, with the bracts conspicuously protruded.



From the Supplement (Vol. V)

specimens: National Pinetum, Bedgebury, Kent, four trees 65-85 ft high, 5[3/4] ft-7[1/4] ft in girth (1980); Wakehurst Place, Sussex, by The Lake, 90 × 7[3/4] ft (1979); Borde Hill, Sussex, the tree mentioned was blown down in the late 1970s; Hergest Croft, Heref., pl. 1917, 80 × 9[1/4] ft and 88 × 7[1/2] ft (1980); Cragside, Northumb., 133 × 9[3/4] ft (1984); Blair Atholl, Perths., St Brides, pl. 1878., 121 × 15[1/2] ft and, Diana’s Grove, 124 × 10[1/2] ft (1983); Taymouth Castle, Perths., 125 × 10[3/4] ft and 130 × 12 ft (1983); Dunira House, Perths., 70 × 9[1/4] ft (1981); Portna-craig, Fonah, Perths., 70 × 11[1/4] ft (1983); Balmoral Castle, Aberd., pl. 1877, 73 × 7 ft in 1931, now 115 × 11 ft (1980); Glentanar, Aberd., by the Drive, 121 × 8[1/4] ft (1980); Altyre, Moray, a finely shaped tree, 80 × 6[1/4] ft (1980); Ardross Castle, Ross, in the Pinetum, pl. 1900, grafted on A. alba, 75 × 12 ft (1980).

var. shastensis – This is intermediate between A. magnifica and the related A. procera, and is considered by some authorities to be the result of hybridisation between them. It is represented in cultivation in Britain only by a few small grafted trees which do not thrive.

Genus

Abies

Other species in the genus